In short, Hay was simply trying to protect the prospects of American businessmen and investors. In the writings of these scholars, the open door metaphor not only survived its eclipse in the s Far East, it emerged as one of the most enduring interpretive concepts in the study of U.
The resistance that the McKinley administration confronted during the debate over Philippine annexation in mid attested to the strength of anti-imperial opinion. From the Chinese standpoint, however, the United States was often just another foreign country determined to prevent China from controlling the terms of its relations with the outside world.
Over the following century, Americans scorned the imperial intentions of others even as their own leaders made ambitious efforts to secure economic opportunity abroad.
Historians have labeled Americans "hitchhiking" imperialists or, in a different formulation, "jackals" fattening up thanks to the British lion and other European predators.
The American Search for Opportunity, — China would not be recognized as a sovereign state until after World War II. Following the burst of American interest in the s, many U.
With the proclamation of the new U. Byas the historian Thomas J. The Open Door policy began with the issuance of a circular diplomatic note by U. The policy was a cornerstone of American foreign policy in East Asia until the midth century. Early the following year, the New York Chamber of Commerce sent McKinley a petition urging "proper steps" for the "preservation and protection of … important commercial interest in the [Chinese] Empire.
On 25 July, the United States unilaterally granted tariff autonomy to China in exchange for a new guarantee of most-favored-nation status. The closing of the Western frontier left these men with little hope of expanding the domestic market, and none of them entertained demands from organized labor to increase the purchasing power of ordinary Americans.
The Japanese government, content to pursue its aims peacefully, entered into all three of the resulting treaties. The treaty system became more elaborate in the following years as Qing authority continued to deteriorate amid civil wars and new military humiliations by Britain and France.
After years of political turmoil, the nationalist movement of Sun Yat-sen and Chiang Kai-shek began to make headway in the mids toward unifying the country under a viable central government.
Only Russia and Japan voiced displeasure. American investment, the administration concluded, was the only avenue open to Washington for bolstering Chinese unity and checking Japanese influence, which otherwise would go virtually unopposed. Inunder the guidance of the U.
Initially, amid major distractions in Europe, Washington had little interest in tangling with Japan in a part of the world that was decidedly of secondary importance. The Chinese strategy worked fairly well. From through the Cold Warthese scholars assert, the U. Doing Business in China" The Open Door policy appeared a natural course of action for the United States for a variety of reasons.
Indeed, during the mids U. The American Experience in East Asia. The American flirtation with empire in China ended amid grudging acceptance that exerting influence within the concert of powers—rather than breaking out on its own—remained the best course for the United States.
On the other hand, he showed a hardheaded determination to protect the interests of American capitalists by promoting access to overseas markets.
Even as the United States emerged as a major power, the vast majority of Americans opposed foreign entanglements, and the McKinley administration saw no reason to risk its popularity.
If these forces destroyed American policy in China, they hardly demolished the idea of the Open Door. The president brought U.
The latter group gained the upper hand in after Chiang successfully concluded his Northern Expedition, a moment Americans chose to interpret as signaling the arrival of a united China under Kuomintang rule.
If this principle collapsed, the United States, with no sphere of its own and no capacity for obtaining one, would be in a dire position.
The open door interpretation remains influential for two additional reasons.Start studying US History - Chapter 17 (Imperialism). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
The United States wanted overseas territories because the territories had. the introduction of the open door policy in China or actions taken by the United States.
The impact of such an Open Door Policy would be to put all of the imperial nations on an equal footing and minimize the power of those nations with existing spheres of influence. No nation formally agreed to Hay’s policy; each used the other nations' reluctance to endorse the Open Door.
Open Door Policy Essay Examples words. 2 pages. United States Influenced by Business Elites and Imperialists by the Turn of the Century. words. 1 page. A Comparison Between the U.S. Open Door Policy and the Monroe Doctrine. words. 1 page. A Study of the Chinese Fireworks Industry.
words. 2 pages. The Objectives and. Open Door Policy. A policy proposed by the US inunder which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China. John Hay. American secretary of state who attempted to protect Chinese independence and protect American interests in China. Major Powers.
OPEN DOOR POLICY was a foreign policy initiative enunciated formally by Secretary of State John Hay in his Open Door notes of and The first note was issued on 6 September to Great Britain, Germany, and Russia, with notes following to Japan, France, and Italy.
Mar 04, · My AP US History teacher had told us that the U.S. wanted a foot in China, and that was the secret purpose of the Open Door Policy (although Status: Resolved.Download