Another method that could be used for researching children would be observations. Such children are more at risk because they have as many of the rituals and lack of social skills as children with full autism, but they are more likely to be mainstreamed in school, since they are on the higher-functioning end of the autism spectrum.
This satisfaction is associated with an increased ability to accomplish activities of daily livingas well as a reduced decline in cognitive abilitiesdecreased instances of hospitalization, and better outcomes related to rehabilitation.
February 19, This week, I struggled for a blog topic and whilst talking to my mum about what she was studying in her psychology course with the Open University, she mentioned using children in research.
Studying children can be very difficult as you have to gain informed consent from both children and their parents as they are under the age of 16 and may not understand what is involved. They both started off by using more qualitative data but later Bigelow and La Gaipa altered theirs to quantitative.
A number of theories have attempted to explain this link.
Research by McLennan measured the heart rates of cattleand showed that the cows were more stressed when alone or with an unfamiliar cow than they were with friends, lending support to the idea that cows are social animals, capable of forming close bonds with each other.
Cross-species friendships may also occur between two non-human animals, such as dogs and cats. They were then told to write an essay on what they expected of their best friend and how it differs from expectations of other friends.
Another problem is the pre-determined list they created, this removes the individual expectations that the children had suggested and focuses only on what the researchers wanted to find, this affects the validity of the study.
Children with autism have been found to be more likely to be close friends of one person, rather than having groups of friends. However, potential negative effects can be mitigated if the dissolution of a friendship is replaced with another close relationship. Children with autism have more difficulty attending to social cuesand so may not always recognize when they are being bullied.
They also say another problem is that children struggle to understand the question, this leads to children giving irrelevant information that is not useful to the researchers. They suggest the use of video cameras can record the events as they happen and can give detailed information about children.
Bigelow and La Gaipa found some differences in the expectations of a best friend in different ages and how gender differs too.
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They both make valid points in their methods, studies and especially their results, but both results contradict one another, by one saying as you get older friendships become more complex and you become more concerned for friends, where on the other hand the other goes on to show that from a young age of three a couple of young girls show concern for each other, which opens the question of every child differs from each other.
Findings indicated that adolescents were less likely to engage in problem behavior when their friends did well in school, participated in school activities, avoided drinking, and had good mental health. However an adult observing children and being part of the group has its own problems, it is very difficult for an adult to fit in with children and whilst the observation is happening, the children will be aware that an adult is watching them and this may affect the way they behave.
Greig, Taylor and MacKay suggested that observations can produce very useful information for researchers, and is the best way of seeing children in their natural settings. This method has benefits over other methods as it overcomes the problems of language development as the researcher observes the interactions rather than asking the children to explain their friendships, it also overcomes a similar problem with writing essays.
Childhood[ edit ] Childhood friends The understanding of friendship in children tends to be more heavily focused on areas such as common activities, physical proximity, and shared expectations.
Whether adolescents were influenced by their friends to engage in problem behavior depended on how much they were exposed to those friends, and whether they and their friendship groups "fit in" at school. In preschool years, children with Down syndrome can benefit from the classroom setting, surrounded by other children and less dependent on adult aid.
He made notes on the different activities of children and their interactions with each other, whilst video recording them, this is an example of an ethnographic approach. Another way of researching children is to interview children however this has its own problems, although interviews involve the same questions being asked and therefore the results would be more reliable.
Bigelow and La Gaipa sampled a study of four hundred and eighty essays. To change this they could have asked another variety of people on their first thoughts on what is a best friend and used a mixed variety of ideas. Work friendships often take on a transactional feel; it is difficult to say where networking ends and real friendship begins.
In the Experiment itself they asked thirty girls and thirty boys from eight different schools, between the ages of six and fourteen to think about their best friend of the same sex.Bigelow and La Gaipa in approached a study on children’s friendships; they started the study in the when very little was known on children’s friendship and the aspects of ‘friendships’.
Their main studies was to look at the differences in children’s understanding of friendship at various stages of development and how the. Friendship Expectations and Friendship Evaluations Reciprocity and Gender Effects Show all authors.
M. L. CLARK. M. L. CLARK. Virginia Commonwealth University See all articles by this author. Search Google Scholar for this author. MARLA AYERS Bigelow, B., & La Gaipa, J. ().
Brain Bigelow, John La Gaipa and William Corsaro have both made important contributions into understanding how children interpret “friendship”. Bigelow and. Friendship is a relationship of mutual affection between people. Friendship is a stronger form of interpersonal bond than an association.
Friendship has been studied in academic fields such as communication, sociology, social. Bigelow and La Gaipa carried out one of the first studies from what was a very under researched area. Bill Corsaro, a key figure in childhood studies, was particularly successful in gaining access into young children's worlds which has helped shape a further picture of this somewhat intriguing definition.
Feb 19, · Bigelow and La Gaipa ( as cited in Brownlow ()) studied children’s friendships and used content analysis to do this. They asked children, between the ages of six and fourteen, to write essays on the expectations of their best friend and how it differed from the expectations of others, they then compared this to a list of pre.Download